The authorities in Rwanda’s capital, Kigali, have announced that people will be fined $10 (£7.50) for not wearing face masks in public or not wearing them properly.
The same fine will also be imposed for violating the 2m (6ft) social distancing rule in public, or ignoring the night-time curfew.
Organisers of parties and other illegal gatherings could be fined $200, and those who attend $25.
These latest measures to curb the spread of coronavirus have led to a backlash on Twitter.
“I wonder if heavy penalties will scare the virus away or will [financially] ruin people furthermore,” one person tweeted.
Rwanda has so far reported more than 4,200 COVID-19 and 17 fatalities.
It has been praised for being effective in the fight against the disease, and is the only country in sub-Saharan Africa whose residents are allowed to enter the European Schengen zone.
Rwanda was the first country in sub-Saharan Africa to impose a total lockdown after confirming its first cases.
Some people who violated restrictions were taken to stadiums or school buildings where they were forced to sit all night or day.